Department of Health
E-cigarettes around 95% less harmful than tobacco estimates landmark review
An expert independent evidence review published today by Public Health England (PHE) concludes that e-cigarettes are significantly less harmful to health than tobacco and have the potential to help smokers quit smoking.
Key findings of the review include:
- the current best estimate is that e-cigarettes are around 95% less harmful than smoking
- nearly half the population (44.8%) don’t realise e-cigarettes are much less harmful than smoking
- there is no evidence so far that e-cigarettes are acting as a route into smoking for children or non-smokers
The review, commissioned by PHE and led by Professor Ann McNeill (King’s College London) and Professor Peter Hajek (Queen Mary University of London), suggests that e-cigarettes may be contributing to falling smoking rates among adults and young people. Following the review PHE has published a paper on the implications of the evidence for policy and practice.
The comprehensive review of the evidence finds that almost all of the 2.6 million adults using e-cigarettes in Great Britain are current or ex-smokers, most of whom are using the devices to help them quit smoking or to prevent them going back to cigarettes. It also provides reassurance that very few adults and young people who have never smoked are becoming regular e-cigarette users (less than 1% in each group).
However, the review raises concerns that increasing numbers of people think e-cigarettes are equally or more harmful than smoking (22.1% in 2015, up from 8.1% in 2013: ASH Smokefree GB survey) or don’t know (22.7% in 2015, ASH Smokefree GB survey).
Despite this trend all current evidence finds that e-cigarettes carry a fraction of the risk of smoking.
Emerging evidence suggests some of the highest successful quit rates are now seen among smokers who use an e-cigarette and also receive additional support from their local stop smoking services.
Professor Kevin Fenton, Director of Health and Wellbeing at Public Health England said:
Smoking remains England’s number one killer and the best thing a smoker can do is to quit completely, now and forever.
E-cigarettes are not completely risk free but when compared to smoking, evidence shows they carry just a fraction of the harm. The problem is people increasingly think they are at least as harmful and this may be keeping millions of smokers from quitting. Local stop smoking services should look to support e-cigarette users in their journey to quitting completely.
Professor Ann McNeill, King’s College London and independent author of the review, said:
There is no evidence that e-cigarettes are undermining England’s falling smoking rates. Instead the evidence consistently finds that e-cigarettes are another tool for stopping smoking and in my view smokers should try vaping and vapers should stop smoking entirely.
E-cigarettes could be a game changer in public health in particular by reducing the enormous health inequalities caused by smoking.
Professor Peter Hajek, Queen Mary University London and independent author of the review said:
My reading of the evidence is that smokers who switch to vaping remove almost all the risks smoking poses to their health. Smokers differ in their needs and I would advise them not to give up on e-cigarettes if they do not like the first one they try. It may take some experimentation with different products and e-liquids to find the right one.
Professor Linda Bauld, Cancer Research UK’s expert in cancer prevention, said:
Fears that e-cigarettes have made smoking seem normal again or even led to people taking up tobacco smoking are not so far being realised based on the evidence assessed by this important independent review. In fact, the overall evidence points to e-cigarettes actually helping people to give up smoking tobacco.
Free Stop Smoking Services remain the most effective way for people to quit but we recognise the potential benefits for e-cigarettes in helping large numbers of people move away from tobacco.
Cancer Research UK is funding more research to deal with the unanswered questions around these products including the longer-term impact.
Lisa Surtees, acting director at Fresh Smoke Free North East, the first region where all local stop smoking services are actively promoted as e-cigarette friendly, said:
Despite making great strides to reduce smoking, tobacco is still our biggest killer. Our region has always kept an open mind towards using electronic cigarettes as we can see the massive potential health benefits from switching.
All of our local NHS Stop Smoking Services now proactively welcome anyone who wants to use these devices as part of their quit attempt and increase their chance of success.
Latest News from
Department of Health
COVID-19: Health Secretary's statement to Parliament26/02/2020 14:15:00
The Secretary of State for Health and Social Care Matt Hancock updated Parliament on the government's response to coronavirus.
CMO for England announces 4 new cases of novel coronavirus25/02/2020 10:10:10
Chief Medical Officer Professor Chris Whitty statement on 4 new cases of COVID-19 from the Diamond Princess.
New pharmacy referral service to help patients avoid hospital readmission24/02/2020 13:10:00
Patients who have recently been discharged from hospital will get greater support from local pharmacy teams to manage their medicines.
Taking multiple medicines? Support the Yellow Card scheme by reporting suspected side effects18/02/2020 10:10:10
The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) launches a week long social media campaign to raise awareness about the importance of reporting suspected side effects using the Yellow Card Scheme.
Mumps outbreaks across England14/02/2020 13:05:00
Public Health England and NHS England urge people to ensure they have 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine as mumps cases rise to highest levels in a decade.
New bill gives hospitals power to develop personalised treatment13/02/2020 14:10:00
The Medicines and Medical Devices Bill introduces new safety measures, increases the professions that can prescribe low-risk medicines and allows hospitals to develop personalised medicines.
Coronavirus: Health Secretary's statement to Parliament12/02/2020 15:10:00
The Secretary of State for Health and Social Care Matt Hancock updated Parliament on the government's response to coronavirus (11 February 2020).
Storage limit for frozen eggs, sperm and embryos to be reconsidered12/02/2020 13:10:00
The government is seeking views on reviewing the current 10-year storage limit for eggs, sperm and embryos, to give more people the opportunity to start a family.